**PHY4014: Mathematical Methods for Physics (60 lecture hrs)**

Complex Variables, Analytic Functions, Residue theorem, Contour Integration and Conformal Mapping, Special Functions, Legendre Polynomials and recursion relations, Bessel Functions, Henkel Functions, Hermit Polynomials, Orthogonal Properties, Partial Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems, Laplace’s Equations, Integral Transforms, Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms, Calculus of Variations, Euler-Lagrange Equations, Matrices, Eigen Value Problems, Integral Equations, Degenerate Kernel, Introduction to Group Theory.

**PHY4024: Classical Mechanics & Special Relativity (60 lecture hrs)**

Lagrangian Formulation, Variational Principles, Hamilton’s Equations, Small Oscillations, Rigid Dynamics, Hamilton-Jacobi Theory, Poisson Brackets, Introduction to Classical Theory of Fields, Relationship between Classical and Quantum Mechanics. Space-Time, Lorentz Transformations, Velocity Transformations, Velocity Transformation, Minkowski Space, 4-Vectors, Relativistic Invariance, Propagation 4-Vector for waves, Relativistic Doppler Effect, Relativistic Dynamics, Conservation of 4-Momentum, Covariant Equation of Motion, Introduction to General Theory of Relativity.

**PHY4034: Quantum Mechanics (60 lecture hrs)**

Failure of classical physics, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Schrodinger Equation, Wave function, Piecewise Constant Potentials, Operators, Eigen values and Eigen functions, Angular momentum, Hydrogen Atom, Harmonic Oscillator, Electron Spin, Time Independent Perturbation Theory, Variational method, Matrix Formulation of Quantum Mechanics, Dirac Bra-Ket Notation, Transformation Theory, Pictures, Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory, Transition Probabilities, Laser Physics

**PHY4044: Electromagnetic Theory (60 lecture hrs)**

Conservation of charge, Scalar and vector potentials, Lorentz condition, Wave equations, Maxwell’s equations, Electromagnetic Waves in space, in non- conductors, in conductors and in low pressure ionized gases, Reflection of electromagnetic waves; Snell’s law, Fresnel’s equations, reflections, reflection at air/dielectric interface, reflection at air/good conductor interface, Reflection by an ionized gas, Wave guides; Modes of propagation, critical frequency, phase velocity, group velocity, Energy Transmission, Transmission lines; equation of telegraphy, characteristic impedance, current and voltage distribution, impedance matching, Electromagnetic Radiation; retarded potentials, electric and magnetic dipole radiation, antennas.

**PHY4053: Special Physics Practical I (135 laboratory hrs)**

Students are provided experimental guidelines. They are required to design and setup experiments on their own following the given guidelines. After completion of an experiment, the student is required to submit a comprehensive report which includes all aspects of the experiment. Reading materials, Discussions, Hands-on experimental procedures, Use of statistical packages/software for writing & analysis and Presentations.

**PHY4063: Special Physics Practical II (135 laboratory hrs)**

Students are provided experimental guidelines. They are required to design and setup experiments on their own following the given guidelines. After completion of an experiment, the student is required to submit a comprehensive report which includes all aspects of the experiment.

**PHY4071: Practical Course Work**

All practical course works are evaluated under this course unit. Students are required to submit all course work at the end of each experiment completed.

**PHY4084: Nuclear and Particle Physics (60 lecture hrs)**

Properties of nuclei including size, shape, spin, electric and magnetic moments. The deuteron, Nuclear reactions; Q valve; Threshold energy, The compound nucleus; Direct reaction, Stripping reactions, Nuclear models; Liquid drop model, Semi-empirical mass formula, Fission, alpha decay, beta decay, Shell model; energy of shells, angular momentum and magnetic dipole moment of the nucleus, Barrier penetration, Collective model. Discovery of Particles; Electrons to quarks, Classification of Particles: Leptons, Mesons and Baryons, Interaction of Particles: Strong, Electromagnetic, Weak and Gravity, Symmetry and Conservation Laws: Energy, Linear Momentum, Total Angular Momentum (J=L+S), Lepton number, Baryon Number, Isospin, Strangeness, Parity, Charge Conjugation, Time reversal, CP and CPT.

**PHY4094: Statistical Mechanics (60 lecture hrs)**

Statistical description of systems of particles, Postulates of Statistical Mechanics, Probability calculations, Behavior of states, Interactions between macroscopic systems, Quasi-static process, Exact and inexact differentiations, Equilibrium conditions and constraints, Reversible and irreversible process, Thermal and general interactions between microscopic systems, Gibbs paradox, Equipartition theorem, Maxwell velocity distribution, Formation of statistical problem, Microcannonical and Cannonical Ensembles, Grand Canonical Ensemble, Classical Ideal Gases; the Partition Function; Boltzmann, Fermi and Bose Distributions, Fermi and Bose Gases, Black body radiation.

**PHY4104: Solid State Physics (60 lecture hrs)**

Crystal Structure, Bravais Cells, Lattice Operations, Bragg Law, Miller indices, Reciprocal Lattice Vectors, Scattering Amplitude, Brillouin Zone, Thermal Properties of Solids, Lattice Vibrations and Phonons, Thermal Energy and Heat Capacity of Solids, Density of States, Debye Model, Electrons in Crystals, Fermi-Dirac Distribution, Fermi Energy, Electrical Conductivity, Semiconductors, Energy Gap, Conduction and Valence Bands, Direct and Indirect Photon Absorptions, Holes, Intrinsic Carrier Concentration, Donor and Acceptor Extrinsic Semiconductors, Magnetic and Dielectric Materials, Optical Phenomena in Solids, Superconductivity, Meissner Effect, London’s Equation, Coherence Length, Formation of Cooper pairs.

**PHY4112: Electronics II (30 lecture hrs)**

Number systems and codes, BCD and ASCII codes. Designing of combinational logic circuits, Minimization of logic expressions using algebraic and Karnaugh map methods, Construction of a Full adder, Decoders, Encoders, Multiplexes, Demultiplexes, and their applications, Characteristics of TTL, ECL, PMOS, NMOS and CMOS gates, Open collector devices, Sequential logic circuits, Flip-Flops as a memory element, S-R, J, K, and Master-Slave Flip-Flops, D and T Flip-Flops, Applications of Flip-Flops, Asynchronous circuits, Registers, Shift registers, Serial and parallel data transfer (SISO, SIPO, PISO, and PIPO) Frequency division and counting, Asynchronous (ripple) counters, Counters with Mod numbers, Up counters, Down counters, Up/Down counters, IC Asynchronous counters, Digital arithmetic in the 2S complement system, Parallel binary adder, Complete parallel adder with registers, Integrated Logic Circuits families, TTL series, Tristate TTL devices, Bus-oriented devices, MOSFET and CMOS series, Analysis and Synthesis of synchronous circuits, Memory systems and Digital data communication.

**PHY4124: Astronomy and Cosmology (60 lecture hrs)**

Astronomy: Stars, Energy Production in Stars, Classification of Stars and Black Holes, Multiple Star Systems, Star Clusters, Galaxies and their Classification, Active Galaxies, Groups, Clusters and Superclusters of Galaxies.

Cosmology: Issues in Cosmology, Cosmic Distance Scales, Expansion of the Universe, The Hubble Law, The Age of the Universe, Gravitation and the General Theory of Relativity, The Principle of Equivalence, The Geometry of the Universe, The Cosmological Principle, Solutions of the Einstein Equations, The Hot Big Bang, The Cosmic Background Radiation, Matter in the Universe, Dark Mater, Dark Energy, Gamma-Ray Bursts, The Inflationary Universe, Growth of Large-Scale Structure, The Planck Era.

**PHY4132: Miscellaneous Topics I - Atmospheric Physics (30 lecture hrs)**

Atmosphere, Survey of the Atmosphere (Atmospheric constitution present and past, Atmospheric classifications, Aurora, Van Allen radiation belts), Cloud formation & Cloud types, Energy Budget, Atmospheric radiation, Atmospheric circulations & wind, El Nino & La Nina effects, Monsoons, Lightning & hazardous, Man and the Environment; Environmental pollution, Noise Pollution, Greenhouse effect & global warming, Ozone. Introduction to atmospheric dynamics. Long term options for energy or renewable energy; Hydropower, Bio-energy, Bio mass and its conversion process, Dendro power, Geothermal energy, Solar energy, Wind energy, Tidal energy, Ocean wave energy, Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).

**PHY4144: Miscellaneous Topics II – Computational Physics (30 lecture hrs, 60 laboratory hrs)**

Computer Arithmetic, Error and uncertainties in Computation, Numerical differentiation: first order and second order derivatives, 2-point and 5-point formulae; Numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules, composite and recursive formulae; Solving non-linear equations: Bisection, Newton’s and Secant methods; Interpolation: Lagrange, linear, polynomial, Divided difference and cube spline interpolation, Neville algorithm, least square fitting, Goodness of fit estimator, maximum likelihood method. Solving systems of linear Equation: Gaussian Elimination, Triangular Factorization, Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel iterative methods; Numerical Solution to Ordinary Differential Equations: Euler, Euler-Cromer, Improved Euler, Taylor Series and Fourth order Runge-Kutta methods; Carlo methods: Uniform and non-uniform random number generation, evaluation of multi-dimensional integration, Random Walk, Simulation applications; Solution of partial differential equations: Heat, Wave and Laplace equations.

**PHY4151: Learning Skills**

Industrial practical training programs and Special degree students’ seminars will be considered as general course assessments.

Students are given options to select a topic of their interest. They are required to self-study the background and other related information on the topic and make a short report on the topic and a power point presentation.

**PHY4166: Research Project**

Special degree level II student’s research projects (including project report and presentation). Projects are assigned at start of Level II. The report must be submitted by the end of the academic year.

**PHY4173: Special Physics Practical III (135 laboratory hrs)**

Students are expected to submit a report for each experiment. Students’ accumulated knowledge from theory and practical courses is tested in a three-hour practical examination held at the end of semester I of Level II.

**PHY4182: Special Physics Practical IV (90 laboratory hrs)**

Students accumulated knowledge from theory and practical courses is tested in a six-hour practical examination held at the end of semester II of Level II.

**PHY4192: Fundamentals of Engineering Workshop Practices (15 lecture hrs, 39 laboratory hrs)**

Introduction to workshop practices: Historical background, conventional machining techniques, Safety measures: Safety equipment, safety measure to be incorporated inside the workshop, Metrology: Uses of devices such as calipers, micrometers, thread gauges, etc. for accurate and precise measurements, Machining: Introduction, single and multi-point cutting tools, Tool geometry and tool materials, Lathe operations, drilling operation, Milling operations, shaping operation, Work holding drives, Welding: Introduction, Arc and gas welding, Welding equipment. Project: Operation of conventional machined to fabricate simple mechanical components and assemblies.

© 2018- Department of Physics, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka